The Cold Debate

Standard

image

 

 

 

 

 

In 1845, Captain Sir John Franklin attempted to discover a route through the Arctic’s infamous Northwest Passage with his two Royal Navy sailing ships Erebus and Terror. Both vessels were lost with all hands and the mystery of their disappearance in the ice vexed the civilised world until strange rumours began to emerge several years later.

The Norwegian explorer Roald Amundsen, who beat Scott to the Antarctic in 1911, finally forced his way through the ice bound Passage in 1906 although there are those who suggest he wasn’t the first. In both instances, neither of these intrepid adventurers had any inclination that global warming would one day (in 2007 in fact) open the route through the Arctic to connect the two great oceans of the Atlantic and Pacific.

I daresay the issue of the Arctic getting warmer never entered the minds of Franklin’s crew as they resorted to cannibalism and froze to death. Nowadays, vessels of various types transit the Northwest Passage and it’s still a controversial argument.

Consider this…

In 1778, Captain James Cook, perhaps the greatest of all English explorers, attempted to find the Passage from the Pacific side and failed. Driven back by the pack ice, he returned to Hawaii and was slaughtered by warriors on the big island. In 2013, my wife Marie and I set out from New Zealand in our own sailing boat Sänna to follow Cook’s route north across the Pacific to British Columbia and Alaska. I was asked by the UK’s Sailing Today magazine to write about Cook’s demise and our own voyage, because we too wanted to find a sailing route home to England. For those of you who are interested you can read the published article here.

Global warming has undoubtedly changed things. These days cruise ships, commercial cargo carriers and small private vessels just like ours transit the Northwest Passage and it’s an emotionally charged subject. The route through is one of the world’s last great wildernesses and the issue of conservation, safety and territorial ownership is passionately debated by those concerned with such things.

For example, the Canadian government are being urged by their own experts, and the media in particular, to restrict the number of both commercial and private vessels in the Arctic region and more specifically the Northwest Passage. They argue that Canada does not have the resources to provide search and rescue operations for high levels of tourism in what is still a vast and exceptionally remote region. Canada’s ice breaking ships, a limited resource, are already being called upon to rescue vessels which become trapped in the ice. Furthermore, huge passenger cruise ships, which are not of ice rated construction, are planning to transit the Passage and are already pre-selling vacation holidays onboard. The mega cruise ship Crystal Serenity for example.

In 2014, twenty seven privately owned sailing and motor vessels attempted to transit the Northwest Passage to take advantage of the perceived ice free sea ways between the Atlantic and Pacific. Of these, only UK sailing legend Jimmy Cornell’s Aventura was specifically built for the task, the rest being invariably constructed for normal ocean passages… much like Franklin’s Terror and Erebus, Cook’s Resolution and Amundsen’s herring boat Gjøa in fact. Only ten of those making the attempt in 2014 made it through the Passage, the rest, including Cornell’s much lauded Aventura, being forced back by pack ice which failed to dissipate as expected. The previous year, in 2013, the ice suddenly came back with a vengeance and six sailing vessels were trapped, eventually being rescued by Canadian ice breakers at great expense.

And there is the great issue. Firstly, global warming is not the reliable robust planet destroyer some would like to have us think and, secondly, the Northwest Passage isn’t for the casual faint hearted. It’s still largely unpredictable. The Canadian authorities argue they have the responsibility and cost of rescuing intrepid adventurers who don’t quite make it. So, in simple terms, should these small sailing boats and commercial cruise ships, in the polar region purely for pleasure and of no scientific value, be allowed to cruise through these Arctic regions at will. What do you think?

Let’s discuss our own situation for example.

We ourselves, that is Marie and I, made a plan for our own attempt to transit the Passage this coming year, partly in our quest to continue in Captain Cook’s wake and also to find a route home to complete our sailing circumnavigation. We’re now overwintering Sänna in Alaska and our opinions are changing.

Firstly, we thought to include Marie’s son Henry, he’s lived and sailed with us for much of his early years and we’ve, in part, home educated him onboard. Henry is now in mainstream school education in the UK and we approached the teaching establishment for their views on our planned adventure. They were steadfastly opposed although the more liberal and enlightened teachers thought differently. Clearly we touched a raw social nerve and, for those of you who are interested, you can read about this heartfelt and thought provoking debate here.

More importantly, in addition to the teaching fraternity, both the sailing establishment and the various authorities are purposely divided over our venture. My initial attempts to secure UK media backing to contribute to funding the required insurance for our voyage failed because the Northwest Passage isn’t news anymore. It’s been done. That is, I was told, until there is a major disaster or loss of life in the region (which is predicted to happen at some point) when the cameras and reporters will eagerly return with a vengeance. Media focus is shifting away from intrepid adventurism to the environmental impacts of casual tourism. No one nowadays is much interested in our adventure and, as my wife tells me, I’m not one that likes to go unnoticed. So what are we to do?

Another fundamental argument we’re increasingly encountering is the construction of our boat, which is not dissimilar to those other sailing boats making the attempt. You see, in simple terms, our hull is made of plastic (GRP in fact) which is supposedly not concussive to ice impact. There’s also much debate by sailing experts about the quality of the design and build of our type of vessel although figures and facts about disasters at sea don’t support this. We’ve successfully survived a number of violent storms unscathed during our round-the-world voyage. But should we venture into the Arctic ice?

A further debate is previous experience of sailing in high latitudes and I do vehemently support this. Day to day survival in extreme cold environments, in my experience, is all about gradual conditioning and acclimatisation much like adapting the mind and body to high altitude climbing. There is also the important aspect of ice navigation. We do have a deal of experience so for ourselves this isn’t a great issue. The Reverend Bob Shepton, the UK’s yachtsman of the year in 2013 and a sailing legend, transited the Northwest Passage in his GRP constructed vessel Dodo’s Delight twice… the most recent at 78 years of age! Bob and I have discussed our own planned attempt in some detail and we both agree that Sänna’s actual build, not her perceived build, and our previous experience in icy waters do not preclude us from thinking we could succeed.

So, why then, are we considering heading south from Alaska to Panama to get into the Atlantic the easy way?

Firstly, we were taken aback by the reaction to including Henry in our plans. He passionately wanted to make his own decision but it meant a potential year out of mainstream schooling, longer if forced to overwinter in the ice as other yachts have done so. New laws have recently been introduced in the UK to prevent extended absences from schools and home education is frowned upon, especially by professional teachers and headmasters charged with improving educational standards. Teachers we debated the subject with also raised the issue of his interaction and dynamics with other children of the same age, which, onboard a sailing boat for anything up to a year in the Arctic, Henry wouldn’t necessarily share. But there is also a counter argument about teenage life experiences and the higher standards achieved through home education. Again, you can read about our experiences in dealing with the education establishment here.

Ironically, to continue on this point, we found much greater media interest in this social argument about education and Henry’s inclusion in our Polar challenge than if we were to make the voyage without him. With Henry onboard we would undoubtedly attract media interest, without him then no dice.

Secondly, there is undoubted risk. Whether it’s just the two of us (or three if Henry does join us), the ocean is unforgiving and even more so in extreme environments. But we’ve learned to live with the risks and deal with them. In return we get to see incredible parts of the world in a way that encompasses a great deal of freedom and a way of life that encourages independence.

But the single big issue for ourselves is the reaction of our peers and that of the respected establishment. The Arctic, despite global warming, is precious and shouldn’t be destroyed by casual tourism that has no scientific purpose? As a sometime rebel, I at first passionately supported this argument, I did not consider myself a tourist. I’m a sailor and adventurer seeking to change my life by sailing my boat alone with my wife. We could go wherever we wanted to sail. Over time I’ve become more wise and learned to view things a little differently. We’ve seen how tourism can change remote regions for sometimes necessary economic reasons. But commercial tourism destroys wilderness… take Alaska for instance.

History provides us with every example of what happens. The courageous explorers, the likes of Cook, Amundsen and many others, discover unknown regions of the world in their own way. They are quickly followed by the adventurers and hard core settlers, like the Klondyke Gold Rush for example, and then come the independent adventure tourist, bringing no value but their own intrepid courage. Finally, organised commercial tourism introduces the casual tourist who often bring great wealth and prosperity to the region. The environment changes and the wilderness is gone. Even so, everyone has the right to travel in their own way and it can be argued that no one has the right to claim incredible locations for themselves. Maybe. Maybe not.

From a mariner’s stand point, Jimmy Cornell in Aventura, a boat built specifically for his Blue Water Odyssey sailing race he organised for the Northwest Passage to highlight the effects of Arctic Global Warming, failed to make a transit. Cornell responded by cancelling the event stating too many of the entry boats, which he himself initially encouraged, were not suitable for sailing in the polar regions, especially given the renewed vengeance of the ice pack. Although ironic that his boat failed and others considered unsuitable succeeded, he has set the debate running and to make our own attempt will mean we could fall foul of expert opinion.

We have yet to make a decision if we’ll sail north and disregard the views of many experts. We can easily go south. The US Coast Guard in Alaska recently advised us of possible new permit requirements to restrict casual encroachment into the region, but then they themselves do not support Canada’s claim to territorial ownership of this Arctic region. It’s ironic that even opposing governments cannot agree and challenge each other over the Northwest Passage. And if things go wrong with our attempt, which is perfectly possible, I will certainly attract a great deal of criticism and be pilloried for being irresponsible in light of the great debate that’s growing.

These days, I suspect we ourselves are merely selfish tourists and not the intrepid adventurers we like to think. We’re a potential liability and I get the distinct impression we are not welcome in the far north. Even so, our thirst for adventure drives us on and maybe we’ll disregard everything, press-gang Henry onboard and go north. But challenging the ways of the world gets tiring and, nowadays, we’re more wary of being controversial. Most probably, we’ll retreat and go south.

Only through global warming is this debate possible and the world we know is changing at a frighteningly fast pace. Or is it? Perhaps the ghosts of Franklin and his lost crew are trying to warn us that all is not well in the frozen north…

Please feel free to comment your thoughts.


Dave & Marie Ungless are currently sailing their boat Sänna around the world from west to east. Their nine year voyage so far has taken them into the North Pacific and to Alaska where they are now located. Dave is a freelance writer and journalist writing about their travels and the social aspects of their journey.

You can view their sailing website at www.sanna-uk.com and their sailing blog at www.sailblogs.com/member/eastwards.

You can also Like their Facebook page at www.facebook.com/sv.sanna.


 

Advertisements

6 thoughts on “The Cold Debate

    • It’s an ongoing debate isn’t it? I’ve read your own blog comments and don’t dispute your sentiments Doug. Your rousing Churchillian response is fine except Churchill is still well remembered in some parts of the world for his infamous failed escapades that cost many lives. I know both Bob Shepton and Jimmy Cornell quite well and they have varying attitudes about who should be in the Northwest Passage. Shepton is very encouraging whereas Cornell’s views seem to change with the wind. We are now in Alaska and in position to attempt the Passage route but there is growing feeling against us from local Mariners, fisherman and, in particular, the US Coastguard. I’m now of the opinion that views here on the Pacific Alaskan side of the Arctic seas are more polarised (forgive the pun) against casual encroachment into the region by private vessels that provide no value… some of your posts in your own blog support this. They’re a tough breed here Doug and they don’t suffer fools.

      Like

      • Your points are well noted.

        The Northwest Passage is only for those who are well prepared with plans for the many difficulties they may experience while undertaking such an extended high latitude voyage – remember the NWP seven routes are between Pacific and Atlantic Arctic Circles but there remains thousands of miles past the finish line to reach a tepid climate.

        Few “recreational” garden variety yachts should be used for a NWP attempt – but that is my own opinion – since most yachts have been recreational yachts I’m totally wrong by the numbers but know that I’m not venturing in summer with family and friends north of the Arctic Circle without a well found vessel – my preference starts with a steel hull, closed loop antifreeze keel cooled machinery, dry exhaust, three sources of heat, watermaker, large fuel tanks etc. you get the idea – I want to enjoy the adventure with the comforts of home. What is best remains up to the boat owner to decide – DODO’S DELIGHT vs AVENTURA IV shows you the extremes in material, design, and outfittings.

        Yet David Scott Cowper now planning his seventh NWP started with a wooden lifeboat (MABEL E HOLLAND) twice around the world then upgraded to a custom heavy scantlings aluminum expedition yacht (POLAR BOUND) with home comforts and a 5,000 miles range. Spartan vs luxury vs expedition – while all mentioned owners have different vessels with different operating styles so are their personal lives as different… what does all of this mean? It demonstrates that a NWP is not just equipment but involves planning and preparation as your personal style dictates – just look deeper into who and why they made it through a 2014 NWP… 2015 is going to be a repeat of 2013 and 2014. Why? Because of the extreme and variable ice and weather conditions which recreational sailors are not experienced with… go without good backups nor shore support… when it comes time to pass the starting Arctic Circle requiring a commitment to ice navigation knowing how far the opposite Arctic Circle finish lies ahead it will separate the chaff from the wheat.

        Global warming didn’t get the memo that yachts are attempting a NWP and the media reports of no ice is a blatant lie. When you see the ice in person you finally understand how small you are and how big mother nature is and you have come to play in her garden. Not to mention that there remains thousand of miles after the finish line to reach a tepid climate for the winter – else be ready to winter over in Alaska or Greenland… more adventure… not for everyone but for those mariners who are confident in their abilities and skills to meet the challenge from their Call of the North.

        If you want to build your ship to sail over the horizon, don’t ask land lubbers how or why!

        Be safe,
        Douglas Pohl
        M/V GREY GOOSE

        Like

      • Maybe you’re right on the vessel build criteria for the NWP Doug but how many yachts meet your high specification? Ours certainly doesn’t…

        But the big burning issue here in Alaska is one of tourism… who is a tourist and who isn’t. Given the massive dependence on tourism, local professional mariners have little time for visiting tourist even tho some of them entirely depend on the income. As a British yacht planning to overwinter in Alaska I was invited to the Juneau Yacht Club to talk about our plans to head north and the debate that followed was riveting. It mirrored much other talk in the bars (I think beer talk is the best source of real opinion) and the casual word on the docks. The big talk, other than fishing quotas, is nearly all about tourism and the subsequent destruction of the environment. It’s a hot subject. These yachts that pop out of the western end of the NWP seem to be seen as a strange sort of adventure tourists… except for a grudging respect for the smaller boats from local deep sea fishermen. The relationship between Alaskans and any form of tourist isn’t an easy one.

        The prevailing view is that encrouchment into the NWP and Arctic region should be scientific and not for pleasure… unless you’re the US Coastguard. I’ve got to know the local Coastguard guys quite well and the official view seems to be vessel construction – which pretty much replicates your own opinion Doug. Their other point, which they bang on about over and over again, is who owns the damn Northwest Passage? I’ve been somewhat taken aback by their steadfast stance against Canada and I’ve been warned not to get involved in the politics and not to blog about it… so I’m signing off now.

        I’m not going to stand alone against the world’s policemen…

        Like

      • We know who says the “owns” it – Canada – but if you own it you have to police it, build infrastructure of search & rescue and take care of the indigenous people – Canada gets a big fat “D” so far… Everyone in their yacht has the right of innocent passage through the NW Passage… but if you need help and you are in Canada then they have the responsibility to provide the help – that’s according to the Agreement they signed… but last year a yacht called an icebreaker for help and the watchstander would not answer – no excuse offered but he was breaking ice for a commercial “tourist” ship to see wildlife… luckily the yacht didn’t get crushed or damaged and was able to make way itself to open waters… yes, it was a steel hull.
        Tourism plays a big part in Alaska’s economy… especially now that oil production and prices are at a record low… residents need to realize who is contributing to paying their Government bills – OUTSIDERS!

        Bottom line – if you need help in the far North – Alaskans will be there and put it all on the line – there is no ‘outsider’ when another mariner needs help. When you’re in a saloon there lots of talk drowning in their suds.

        USCG District 17 needs a lot more funding… to open forward stations in Nome, Barrow and Kaktovik during the Summer-Fall months… READY TO SERVE AND PROTECT!

        Anyone who thinks a dozen yachts a year are causing an environmental problem from being boating tourists while making a NW Passage needs to get an education on cause and effect. Boating is at the bottom of lists on endangering or damaging… Alaska’s 500,000 square miles of state lands spread over some 34,000 miles of shoreline… if you love the outdoors, winter blues don’t get you down and you are not afraid of mother nature and have a rational brain – Alaska is spectacular! Alaskans are some of my best friends! There lifestyle is truly inspiring and rewarding!

        I’d slip those lines early and head North when you are ready to see Alaska during your 2015 NWP… so much to see and experience that you can’t see it all in one lifetime… so start early and enjoy as much as you can along the high road over the top of the world…

        Be safe,

        Douglas Pohl

        Like

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s